REFERENCES

References for life on earth web page

Introduction references

Lanese, N., 2020. What Is Homeostasis?. [online] livescience.com. Available at: <https://www.livescience.com/65938-homeostasis.html> [Accessed 4 August 2020].

 

Unicellular vs multicellular Growth references

BBC Bitesize. 2020. Mitosis And The Cell Cycle – How Do Organisms Grow And Develop? – OCR 21C – GCSE Combined Science Revision – OCR 21St Century – BBC Bitesize. [online] Available at: <https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/guides/zgtdb82/revision/2> [Accessed 5 August 2020].

Mitosis Diagram reference

Encyclopedia Britannica. 2020. Cell – Cell Division And Growth. [online] Available at: <https://www.britannica.com/science/cell-biology/Cell-division-and-growth> [Accessed 5 August 2020].

Reproduction

Rosamondgiffordzoo.org. 2020. [online] Available at: <http://rosamondgiffordzoo.org/assets/uploads/animals/pdf/GiantAfricanMillipede.pdf> [Accessed 5 August 2020].

 

Animals.sandiegozoo.org. 2020. Giant African Millipede | San Diego Zoo Animals & Plants. [online] Available at: <https://animals.sandiegozoo.org/animals/giant-african-millipede> [Accessed 5 August 2020].

 

En.wikipedia.org. 2020. Fuligo Septica. [online] Available at: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuligo_septica> [Accessed 5 August 2020].

 

Archispirostreptus gigas image

 

Pictures, M., 2020. Minden Pictures Stock Photos – African Giant Black Millipede (Archispirostreptus Gigas) Mating, Nossob River, Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, South Afri…. [online] Minden Pictures. Available at: <https://www.mindenpictures.com/search/preview/african-giant-black-millipede-archispirostreptus-gigas-mating-nossob-river/0_70031449.html> [Accessed 5 August 2020].

 

Response to stimuli

 

En.wikipedia.org. 2020. Archispirostreptus Gigas. [online] Available at: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archispirostreptus_gigas> [Accessed 5 August 2020].

 

Westernexterminator.com. 2020. The House Centipede: Facts, Bite, Behavior | Western Exterminator. [online] Available at: <https://www.westernexterminator.com/occasional-invaders/understanding-the-house-centipede/> [Accessed 5 August 2020].

 

Science.jrank.org. 2020. Slime Molds. [online] Available at: <https://science.jrank.org/pages/6187/Slime-Molds.html> [Accessed 5 August 2020].

 

Cell organisation

 

Diffen.com. 2020. Eukaryotic Cell Vs Prokaryotic Cell – Difference And Comparison | Diffen. [online] Available at: <https://www.diffen.com/difference/Eukaryotic_Cell_vs_Prokaryotic_Cell> [Accessed 5 August 2020].

 

Jameson, M., 2020. Fuligo Septica | Gardening In The Panhandle. [online] Gardening in the Panhandle. Available at: <https://nwdistrict.ifas.ufl.edu/hort/tag/fuligo-septica/> [Accessed 5 August 2020].

 

 

 

Cell diagrams

 

Diffen.com. 2020. Image:Plant-Cell.Jpg – Difference And Comparison | Diffen. [online] Available at: <https://www.diffen.com/difference/Image:Plant-Cell.jpg> [Accessed 5 August 2020].

 

Diffen.com. 2020. Image:Prokaryotic-Cell.Jpg – Difference And Comparison | Diffen. [online] Available at: <https://www.diffen.com/difference/Image:Prokaryotic-Cell.jpg> [Accessed 5 August 2020].

Cellular Organisation

The Fuligo septica is not actually a mould. Nor is it a plant, animal, or bacteria. It is actually a plastid, in the kingdom Protista and class Myxogastria, whose wind- or insect-spread spores converge and divide into a singular giant cell containing millions of nuclei, known as a plasmodium. These individuals come together to form a larger plasmodium and move as a mass of protoplasm, about a millimeter per hour, to feed on microorganisms living in decaying plant material. (Jameson, 2020)

Typically a Archispirostreptus gigas cell contains plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, chromosomes, ribosomes and mitochondria. Eukaryotic cells have a plasma membrane. The plasma membrane controls the passage of organic molecules, ions, water, and oxygen in and out of the cell. Waste such as carbon dioxide and ammonia, also leave the cell by passing through the plasma membrane.

 

Response to stimuli

In response to light stimuli the millipede Archispirostreptus gigas look for a place to hide because their eyes are very sensitive to light. (Western Exterminator, 2020)However, during the dark it returns to the surface of the earth to feed. It’s responses to predators by curling in as a form of defences into a tight spiral, thereby secreting an irritable liquid from this repugnant glands situated on both sides of body segments.(Archispirostreptus gigas, 2020)

Fuligo septica can exist as cells which are able to move to find food so when they don’t have food in their current location they move to a different location which is a response to the lack of food. A  common habitat for these cells is underneath rotting logs and damp leaves, where the cellulose that the cells use for food is abundant. These cells like environments that are dry and have a lot of light where they then fuse together to form an enormous single cell that contains thousands of nuclei. This form, called a pseudoplasmodium, can ooze about seeking a region of acceptable warmth and brightness. (Slime Molds, 2020)

Single cellular vs Multicellular Reproduction

Archispirostreptus gigas (African black millipede)reproduction starts when the male species attempts to stimulate the female species by walking along side her. When the female is stimulated she will then allow the male to enter a complex mating ritual. The male will slide underneath the female they will both then coil around each other. At this point the male will exchange his sperm with the  female who will then transfer the sperm to her eggs. The male and female will then uncoil from each other the male will leave the female and the female will then build a nest to deposit her eggs in underground. The eggs will then only become fertilised once they have been laid in the nest after 3 months the eggs will hatch into Archispirostreptus gigas ( San Diego Zoo Animals & Plants, 2020)

Multicelluar reproduction occurs when a female and a male engage in mating to create offspring. In the case of the Archispirostreptus gigas a male and female are required to produce offspring through mating. Single cellular reproduction doesn’t always require a male and female to produce new offspring. Fuligo septica have spores which areis a units of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions. Their spores are produced on or in aerial sporangia and are spread by wind. (Fuligo septica, 2020) This is the main comparison points between both Archispirostreptus gigas and Fuligo septica, one requires a male and female and the other doesn’t.

 

 

Unicellular vs Multicellular Growth

Giant African Millipedes just like all multi celled organisms consists of cell organelles, cells, tissues, organs and organ systems that all work together in order to give life to the specific organism.

The giant African millipede is one of the largest species growing up to 32cm in body length. The body compromises of around 30-40 segments with four legs per segment equaling around 400 legs per millipede. In order to grow they must shed their exoskeleton and as they do this they grow additional body segments with legs. Their life expectancy is roughly around 10 years, typically living longer if living in captivity.

Uni-celled organisms (Fuligo septica) can use mitosis as a type of asexual reproduction in order to replicate identical copies of themselves and expand there colony. However, multicellular organisms  such as Archispirostreptus gigas use the process of mitosis to produce more cells for growth and repair. Due to uni-celled organisms simplistic life form, they can exist in areas that are classed as dangerous or not ideal to multi celled organisms and can be highly acidic or radioactive, but on the other hand, the downside of the fuligo septica is when faced with undesirable conditions they can be easily wiped out due to all cells being clones of one another. This means that they also lack genetic diversity which makes them vulnerable to the same threats such as temperature change and/or ph change. This however isn’t the case for multi celled organisms (Archispirostreptus gigas) they don’t reproduce in the process of mitosis. Multi celled organisms use this process to grow in size and contain specialised and differentiated cell types that all function accordingly in order to maintain life for the organism. (BBC Bitesize, 2020)

 

 

Introduction

On this blog I will be highlighting the similarities and differences between the fuligo septica which is commonly known as the “scrambled egg slime” and archispirostreptus gigas which is known as the “giant African millipede”. The Fuligo Septica is a unicellular organism and the archispirostreptus gigas is a multicellular organism so I will be comparing these two organisms based on four comparison points, response to stimuli , cell organisation, reproduction and growth.